Lawful Dissent Under Article 61 Quick Guide

We are all Sovereign men and women, under the Common law Constitution, endowed with
God-given rights that cannot be taken away.
The purpose of this document is to help every man and woman living in the Commonwealth
of Nations, to understand that we have a Constitution that has been violated, that treason
has been committed against the people by those who govern us, and that our constitution
offers us the ability to redress it.
Though this document is not intended to go into detail about every situation you might face,
it will guide you through a basic process of how to restore your inalienable rights and
freedoms under Common law and reassert your allegiance to the Constitution.
This document aims to simplify things as much as possible so that as many people as
possible will follow through. This is and always will be a numbers game!

Our Constitution, Magna Carta 1215

Our Constitution is written over several documents, uncodified into any single document.
The foundation stone is the Magna Carta 1215; a peace treaty made between the king and
his people to serve as a perpetual charter of human rights enshrined within our
Common/Constitutional Law and it applies to all Commonwealth Nations.
It stands that any government (including the Crown) are subservient to the people who are
not to be ruled by the state and its purpose is to prevent the erosion of Sovereignty and
prohibit foreign rule. It covers the right to appeal to a committee of 25 Barons for redress
against a tyrant and is the highest Law since it is of Royal Assent and existed prior to any
parliament. Meaning no Parliament can amend it without the explicit will of the people and
any Act or Statute that proceeds it, must uphold it.
Subsequently, Parliament is unable to adapt, modify or remove it without the explicit consent
of the people and to do so would be an act of High Treason punishable at life
imprisonment/death (Treason Act 1795).
Britain has National Sovereignty meaning we are a nation of sovereign peoples. The
monarch is merely in service to the sovereign people and MUST abide by their sworn Oath
and contract to uphold the common law (within the Coronation Oath Act). Britain has no
lawful monarch at this juncture in time and the office of sovereign is vacant because the
Coronation Oath Act has been breached many times since 1953.

Article 61 Magna Carta 1215: The Peoples Security Clause

Article 61 of the Magna Carta is a clause contained within it to ensure the ruling Crown
upholds the Constitution. If it is breached, the aggrieved party, the people, can rise up
against it to restore inalienable rights and freedoms until redress is found.
Here is a 90 second clip of a former Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales explaining
Article 61.

Invoking Article 61 removes all authority from the Crown and all its Agents (i.e. Government,
HMRC, DVLA, Police etc). The full text of this clause is at Appendix A in this document.
Throughout history this clause has been invoked 4 times.
The last time was on 23 March 2001 after several hundred thousand individuals sent
postcards to the Queen urging her not to agree to the Nice Treaty. She had been given the
Treaty to ratify which included European clauses that would undermine the people’s God
given Sovereignty and invite foreign rule. Giving Royal Assent to it was treasonous.
In response, 65 Peers selected a quorum of 25 of their number to form a Barons Committee.
They were satisfied that the conditions required to invoke Article 61 has been met and 4 of
their number served the petition on Her Majesty on 7 February 2001, insisting that she
withhold the Royal Assent from any Parliamentary Bill which attempts to ratify the
Treaty of Nice unless and until the people of the UK have given clear and specific
uphold and preserve the rights, freedoms and customs of your loyal subjects as set
out in Magna Carta and the Declaration of Right, which you, our Sovereign, swore
before the nation to uphold and preserve in your Coronation Oath of June 1953
These things she has conspicuously failed to do, and consequently, treason has and is being
The service of the Barons Petition was reported in the Daily Telegraph on the 7th February

  1. On invoking Article 61 in March 2001, the Barons Committee gave every man and
    woman the peaceful remedy against the destruction of ancient laws and customs, the
    erosion of our Sovereignty under God.
    It is for the Barons Committee to let us know when redress has been satisfied.

Article 61 Magna Carta 1215: The Crown has committed High Treason?
Yes. Britain and the Commonwealth has been under a treasonous administration for 105
years. The 1911 Parliament Act was an Act of Treason by the Herbert Henry Asquith (Liberal
1908 to 1916) administration because it breached the proper protocols and protections of
the constitution.
King George V granted assent to said Act, not long after the Parliament Act was passed into
law and everything began to change. In 1914 the Banksters contrived the first world war to
further the corporate takeover of the world and profit from it. This has been ongoing as
legislation granted by royal assent has changed the system of law and of service bit by bit.
Since 23 March 2001, the latest invocation of Article 61, The Crown and all its Agents have
been governing us Ultra Vires, unlawfully and without any authority and as a consequence,
the Constitution requires us all:
“together with the community of the whole realm, distrain and distress us in all
possible ways, namely, by seizing our castles, lands, possessions, and in any other
way they can, until redress has been obtained as they deem fit”.

We are duty bound to uphold the Constitution, and duty bound to inform when it is not
(Treason Act, 1795). The moment we become aware that government isn’t upholding the
Constitution, there are implications of our own acts and omissions too, and in doing nothing,
we become complicit, aiding and abetting their treason. The penalty is life in prison and
seizure of all assets.
A.61 provides us with lawful excuse to break with all acts and statutes of Parliament with
absolute impunity since they became NULL and VOID until the Constitution is restored.
To be clear, you have lawful excuse not to aid and abet the Crown in any way. It is a crime
to pay tax, fines or to consent to the will of the imposters (government) corporate hearings
(courts), policy enforcers (police). The law demands that we rebel in protection of our
sovereignty at this time. Peacefully but defiantly.

Article 61 Magna Carta 1215: To note

There has been a long and concerted attempt to undermine the idea of a constitution and
claim Parliament is sovereign, essentially placing Parliament above the law – our Common
Law – which refers to our basic moral values, right and wrong, no harm, loss, injury, fraud or
breach of the peace.
While many people including legal professionals will argue that we have no such
Constitution, that Magna Carta 1215 has been repealed by subsequent Acts, this is a
complete fallacy. The parliamentary Cabinet Manual is clear that statute is drawn from Maga
Carta 1215 and not from any subsequent copies or revisions to the Constitution.
In 2015 we celebrated 800 years of Magna Carta, as the article on the British government
website 9 November 2015 discusses, entitled Why Magna Carta remains a foundation of
our Common Law Inheritance

Article 61 Magna Carta 1215: Declaring Your ‘Oath of allegiance’ to the Barons
Without any lawful government, it is for all sovereign men and women to unite under Article
61 to bring redress, re-balance and to restore the rule of Law.
The Constitution depends on us uniting.

    Declare your Oath, switching your allegiance to the Barons Committee, the guardians
    of our Constitution. Reassert your sovereignty.
    The template can be found here. Print it, sign it and get 3 good men/women to sign
    it. Witnesses must be:
    • over the age of 21
    • have no criminal record
    • must not share the same family surname as you
    You do not need to send an oath of allegiance to a baron you merely need to create
    one. The very act of doing so and signing it in front of 3 witnesses proves your intent.
    This also makes the document a lawful instrument and a copy can be provided as

evidence of your standing in law to any agent of the crown or anyone else not standing
under article 61.
If you do send it, here is a list of accepting Barons. Ensure it is recorded first class
and retain your receipt and proof of delivery. Do not expect a reply.
You must keep the original document in your possession, sending a copy of it
alongside any future Notices to anyone making demands upon you in due course.
Once you have declared yourself under Oath it is up to you to determine how you
will apply it.
Remember, the primary reason for going under Oath should be because you know
treason has been committed, that you want redress in a peaceable way so we can
once again be governed justly. It is our lawful duty to do this.

    Declare to the Agents of the Crown that you are now under Oath to the constitution
    by preparing a Notice of Lawful Objection and sending it to your Chief Constable.
    We are asking those that make demands on us to prove in substance that they have
    the lawful authority to do so since the invocation of Article 61.
    The template can be found here.
    Print it, sign it and get 3 good men/women to witness it, as in step 1. They do not
    have to be the same 3 witnesses, but it now becomes a lawful document. Ensure a
    time limit for a response has been included, usually 10-14 days, you decide what is
    Send it with a copy of your Oath, recorded first class, and retain your receipt and
    proof of delivery. Record keeping is essential! Do not expect a reply.
    Maxim law is “he who does not deny, admits”. It also holds that “silence is consent”,
    tacit acquiescence. In other words, if they cannot dispute your claim, they accept it
    and the onus is now on anyone making demands upon you to disprove your claim.
    Remember you are doing this because you have evidential facts that treason has
    been and is being committed, that Article 61 has been invoked and as such, you are
    doing your lawful duty to disobey statutes. You have no intention of aiding and
    abetting a treasonous regime nor intend to breach the peace with any officers under
    his command. Notice to the principal is notice to the agent and notice to the agent is
    notice to the principle. He therefore has a duty to inform everyone under his command.
    This will be helpful to know when you are dealing with police later on.
    If a demand is placed upon you, you need to write out a Notice of Conditional
    Acceptance to whomever is making those demands (i.e. Police fines, HMRC,
    Parking tickets etc).
    Follow the procedure the same as STEP TWO, declaring to the Agents of the Crown
    that you are now under Oath to the constitution and do now wish to aid and abet

treason, asking those that make demands to prove in substance that they have the
lawful authority to do so since the invocation of Article 61. Unless less they can prove
otherwise, they agree to it.
The template can be found here.
Note, it is not a way out of certain laws, fines or taxes (statutes or acts of Parliament)
though it does give you lawful excuse to break the acts or statutes that go against
Common law.
Keep records, receipts and dates as in STEP ONE and STEP TWO.
Remember, you are doing this because it is the lawful duty of every man and woman
living in the British Isles and the Commonwealth. It is not an act of rebellion because
your Oath is to obey the highest law of the land. You are therefore duty bound to
disobey statutes or acts of Parliament which violate our Common law.

The Follow Up Process
Once you have sent out a Notice of Conditional Acceptance and received no reply (highly
unlikely you will) then once the time limit is expired:

  1. Step 4 – Notice of Default and Opportunity to Cure.
    Since the last Notice/your question(s) have been ignored. You send this Notice to
    remain in honor, which is an important part of the process.
    A template can be found here.
  2. Step 5 – Notice of Default.
    You are stating that they are now in default and dishonour and have agreed by either
    tacit consent (ignoring you) or by lack of substance (providing no written evidence of
    them having authority to make demands upon you) that they have no lawful claim
    against you.
    A template can be found here.
  3. Step 6 – Notice of Coercion to Commit Treason/Misprision of Treason.
    If/when they persist, you serve this Notice on any persistent agent (making him/her
    personally liable for their actions under penalty of perjury). The agent would then have
    to decide whether or not to commit high treason in order to pursue you further. You
    will very unlikely hear from them again except for them to write that “your points
    have been noted” in an attempt not to tacitly consent to your points of law, which
    they do anyway when they ignore the evidence provided.

Essentially by this point you have informed them of the treason and their duty and in
their failure to respond appropriately, they are guilty of aiding and abetting treason.
A template can be found here.

  1. Step 6 – Notice of Stop.
    A template can be found here.
    This Notice can be as threatening as you like, use a firm tone that tells them to stop
    making demands upon you and inform them that people are waking up in their number,
    that collectively the common law within real courts of law will be reasserted and that
    you will pursue them with the evidence you have collected against them to bring them
    to justice for their treachery. Remind them that they are committing High Treason in
    full knowledge of the facts and that ignorance is no defence in law.
    Once sent, report any continued harassment, coercion or attempt of extortion to the
    police. Demand an investigation and a crime reference number, reminding them of
    their Oath of office.
    You will need three witnesses to accompany you to the police station to make it stick
    or record it covertly. The police according to their warrant card and Oath MUST
    investigate ALL allegations of crime they have a “duty of care” to do so; be assertive
    but not aggressive.

The essence of these Notices is to continue to give anyone making demands a chance to
rebut your claim, with evidence in substance, with progressively stronger warnings in each
Misprision of treason carries the penalty of life imprisonment and a stripping of all assets so
these Notices present a very serious warning to anyone who continues to pursue demands
against you.
Attempt to report the evidence that you now have in document form to the police and
demand a crime reference number. Record the attempt or take three witnesses.
• you need three witnesses to sign Notices.
• keep copies
• post recorded delivery
• keep all receipts and proof of delivery
Do not use anything but constitutional law in your notices. You do not attend any summonses
because they are not a summons nor are there courts of law. Britain has no courts of law
and you must therefore demand any hearing to be heard in a ‘properly convened court de
jure’ as they stand under British constitutional law only.
Do not play in their criminal ‘legal’ realm; you entirely reject legalese when you enter lawful
rebellion. The act of creating an Oath of allegiance makes it a criminal offence to aid and
abet the Crown in any way, as it also does with anybody not standing under article 61.

Article 61 Magna Carta 1215: Common Law Court

The Common law court is where truth is supposed to be heard and remedies achieved.
The Magistrates (corporate places of business or administration) courts replaced the grand
jury that would hear grievances and decide if there was enough evidence to pass a true bill
and where the defendant would receive a fair and just hearing with a jury of their peers. The
judge is an arbitrator and is not allowed to direct a jury to come to any verdict.
Once you have sworn the oath you cannot enter into a courthouse for any reason as they
have no jurisdiction over you. If they force you into their treasonous court, you have the
right to claim Common Law jurisdiction.
Here is the Common Law Courts website where you can obtain new Identification, birth
certificate and vehicle registration and learn of case law. It has created an International
database for all living men and women. By submitting a declaration for your birth, you have
confirmed that you exist. Currently, the only existing record for you is a legal fiction which
the state has attached to you; this means that you fall under their rules.
By recording your birth with the Common Law Court, you now have an option, you can
remain under the statutory system and rules or stand under the authority and jurisdiction of
the Common Law Court.
There is no charge for recording any information with the Common Law Court.
See also their Lawful Notice served on 28 April 2019 to address the failing in International
Law by creating a world-wide system for the identification of the living man and woman.

Article 61 Magna Carta 1215: Dealing with the Police

Issuing a Notice of Lawful Objection (STEP TWO) will aid you if you are approached by
the police regarding any issues which do not breach Common law (i.e. Covid-19 legislation).
You should ask them “have you been informed of my lawful standing by your Chief
The Notice you sent asked the Chief Constable if he has any lawful objection so to avoid
conflict and breach of the peace with his Constables. A principle within the Notice, is that
once served to Chief Constable, everyone under his command is to be made aware of your
lawful standing.
So, if a Constable who approaches you is not aware of your lawful standing, in effect the
Constable is telling you that his Chief Constable has not informed him he has failed to ‘act
in the execution of his duty’ and is therefore committing misfeasance in a public office
because he has failed in his duty to the Constable. This presents a conflict of interest for a
constable if he pursues against you. Please see your rights at Appendix B, knowledge is
power. Check out the this short explanation.
In essence, Police are Corporate entities that rely on you contracting with them (creating
joinder) to enforce their statutes on you, not the Law. They rely on you to give your
name/address in order to contract with your legal fiction. When under oath, you break with
their acts and statutes and so long as you are not breaching Common Law, which is their
proper and lawful job to uphold, you do not have any reason/need to comply.

Article 61 Magna Carta 1215: Council Tax

Council Tax is one of the few taxes which an individual is required to pay in person and is
not deducted by his or her employer. It is a Poll Tax that applies to everyone’s residence,
even if they do not own it.
Seizing castles has always been a bit tricky so for those who wonder what they can do as
individuals to resist encroachment on their common law rights, withholding Council Tax (CT)
is a lawful option. It is a seizure and holding of property as security for payment of a debt or
satisfaction of a claim.
It is also, as we will show below, a legal obligation.
A.61 states that “the whole community of the realm” is expected to support the Barons
Committee. This means that individual officials have no authority to issue tax demands in
the name of The Queen and will commit the statutory offence of “fraud by misrepresentation”
if they try.
The Courts have no authority to deny the subjects rights either. Representatives of The
Crown cannot breach the common law maxim that “no man may sit in judgment of his own
The Barons Committee procedure is based on the subject’s Common Law right to claim the
protection of “duress of circumstances”. In other words, he or she, may commit a minor
crime to prevent a worse one happening. The only limitations on this defence are; treason
or murder, nor does it protect an individual who voluntarily places himself under duress or
continues to commit minor offences when it is no longer necessary.
You should not refuse to pay anything. You “conditionally accept” the tax/fines, as set out in
STEP THREE and follow through with the follow up process.
This will be a big step for most people, and it may take some time to work through the
implications of your Oath. If it is very difficult not to pay or to get out of unlawful contracts,
you can always “pay under duress”. Watch this short explanation of the legal standing of
Local Authorities.
Remember you are not doing this to be a rebel but to obey the highest law of the land.
The constitution has been violated and treason has been committed, this type of
action is necessary to seek redress!

Article 61 Magna Carta 1215: Practical Understanding and Tips

There are currently more than 25,000 people in the Commonwealth known to have signed
their Oath and re-assert their allegiance to the Constitution, not to a treasonous and unlawful
government that continues to defraud the people of the land. The more people that
understand this and get under oath, the more progress can be made in bringing the redress
for treason at a national level. Every traitor will be personally held to account with the
evidence you have (through keeping your own records of your Notices and receipts) and will
be used to prosecute them.
• Transferring allegiance is not treason because oaths of allegiance are sworn to the
office, not its holder.

• We stand united in our sovereignty as sovereign peoples not as a freeman. A
sovereign is superior in their standing than merely a freeman or baron or whatever. A
sovereign man or women means just that – you are a king or queen of your own land
(Britain). We are a nation of sovereigns this is what makes us all equal under the
common law (constitution) and under God Almighty.
• The Constitutional laws of Britain/Commonwealth protect the common law. The
common law is not written down, it is reflected in the constitution. The common law
is common sense and therefore it isn’t required to be written as it should be in the
hearts of us all.
• Acts and statutes created by Parliament are not Common law.
• Common Law simply states that you do not cause harm, loss, injury, commit fraud,
or breach of the peace. If, for example, you are driving over the speed limit you would
not be in breach of Common law, so long as it doesn’t result in damage to any vehicles
or property or any other man or woman. If by speeding you cause damage, this would
be a breach of common law and you would be liable for damages.
• There is no such thing as victimless crimes in law, there MUST be an injured party
but also evidence of that injury and most importantly, there must be criminal intent or
there is no crime at all. We the people make mistakes/have accidents and may cause
another harm or loss in this way. We are duly obliged to remedy the matter if
compensation is due.
• Our law and system of service has been slowly and insidiously changed so that today
it is totally reversed. All the traitors who are in POWER should of course be in
SERVICE and we are now a nation of slaves by our own tacit consent. Knowledge is
power and when the people are afraid of their government there is tyranny, when the
government fear the might of the people (and they do) there is equality.
• You should not refuse to pay anything, “conditionally accept” any taxes or fines by
sending a Notice of Conditional Acceptance then follow through.
• Police SERVICE, National health SERVICE, Her Majesties Court SERVICE, refuse
collection SERVICE, water and sewage SERVICE. Our forefathers set up these
services for the benefit of us all, we should be paying for the upkeep of said services,
not be extorted by these corporations and power hungry psychopaths.
• It is vitally important that you keep records of all your Notices, receipts, and replies.
Keep a file of all hard copies as well as keeping everything in a separate folder on
your hard drive.

Our duty once we are under Oath is to inform others, encourage and help them to do
the same to redress the treason at a national scale.
Take action now to redress the treason and restore our rights and freedoms!

Further Support and Information
This information and process is completely new to most people. It can be overwhelming but
hopefully this guide is able to break it down to enable you to begin the process and come
under Oath. Please connect with others seeking redress, join the following groups where
you can ask questions and find templates, other resources and support:
Practical Lawful Dissent Canada and Commonwealth
Practical Lawful Dissent Britons Discussion Forum
If you cannot find the Notices you need, they may still be held in the Files section in this old
group which is no longer taking new members.
There is a FULL PROCESS Layman’s Guide to Practical Lawful Dissent which includes
many examples of the process being used.
Here are further websites to check out:
The Common Law Court
Enchanted Life Path
The People’s United Community


Article 61, Magna Carta 1215
The text of Article 61, Magna Carta 1215:
Moreover, since we have granted all these things aforesaid for the sake of God, and
for the reform of our kingdom, and the better to still the discord arisen between us and
our barons, wishing that these things be enjoyed with a whole and constant stability
in perpetuity, we make and grant them the following security: to wit, that the barons
are to choose twenty-five barons of the kingdom, whoever they wish, who should with
all their strength observe, hold and cause to be observed the peace and liberties
which we have granted them, and by this our present charter confirmed, so that if we,
or our justiciar, or our bailiffs, or any of our officers shall in any way offend against
anyone, or transgress against any of the articles of peace or security, and the offence
has been shown to four of the aforesaid twenty-five barons, those four are to go to us,
or to our justiciar if we shall be out of the kingdom, setting forth the transgression, and
demand that we have it reformed without delay. And if we do not have the
transgression rectified, or, if we are out of the kingdom, our justiciar has not done so,
within the space of forty days, counting from the time it was shown to us, or to our
justiciar if we were out of the kingdom, the four barons aforesaid are to refer the case
to the rest of the twenty-five barons, and those twenty-five barons and the commune
of the whole land will distrain and afflict us by every means possible, by taking castles,
lands and possessions and in any other ways they can, until it is rectified in
accordance with their judgment, albeit sparing our own person and the persons of our
queen and children. And once the matter has been redressed let them submit to our
authority as they did before. And whosoever of the land so wishes is to swear that as
to executing all the above he will obey the orders of the twenty-five barons aforesaid,
and that with them he will afflict us to the best of his ability, and we openly and freely
give permission to swear to whoever wishes to do so, and we will never forbid anyone
to swear. But all those of the land who are unwilling to swear individually and
voluntarily to the twenty-five barons, to distrain and afflict us with them, we will make
them swear by our order as aforesaid. And if any of the twenty-five barons dies, or
departs from the land, or is prevented in any other way from being able to act as
aforesaid, the remainder of the twenty-five are to choose another man in his place, as
they see fit, who will be sworn in like manner as the rest. Moreover in everything which
shall be entrusted to the twenty-five barons to carry out, if perchance the twenty-five
are present and disagree among themselves over anything, or if any of them, being
summoned, will not or cannot attend, what the majority of those who are present shall
provide or instruct is to be deemed as determined and binding, as if all twenty-five
had agreed to it. And the aforesaid twenty-five will swear that they will faithfully comply
with all the aforesaid and cause it to be upheld to the best of their ability. And we will
seek to obtain nothing from anyone, in our own person or through someone else,
whereby any of these grants or liberties may be revoked or diminished, and if any
such thing be obtained, let it be void and invalid, and we will never make use of it, in
our own person or through someone else.

 We affirm our innate capacity for self-governance and each take responsibility for
ourselves and our actions;
 We acknowledge that unalienable natural rights should be protected by the rule of true
common law, insofar as such protection does not interfere with said rights;
 We declare that every man and woman is unalienably endowed with the natural right to
think, say or do anything they choose, howsoever they choose, provided they do not
cause harm to another man or woman; as well as to refuse to think, say or do anything
they choose; and to receive remedy for every trespass against this right on proof of lawful
claim; and for the avoidance of doubt declare this singular right to explicitly include the
following natural rights:
 Right to life, liberty, privacy and silence;
 Right to live freely in peace without let, hindrance or charge;
 Right to use and enjoy any and all property, held in peaceful possession, without charge
or levy;
 Right to experience freedom from coercion;
 Right to determine one’s own identity, and to refuse the dilution of one’s individuality;
 Right to free assembly and expression;
 Right to deny or revoke one’s consent to be governed or regulated;
 Right to have free and unrestricted use and enjoyment of a parcel of land;
 Right to be recognised as a man or woman, before the law;
 Right to exercise one’s liberties intact until presented with a sealed writ issued by a rightful
authority, on behalf of a man or woman, alleging breaches of natural law.
 Right to be presumed innocent of allegations until proven otherwise before a jury of one’s
 Right to experience fair, just and equitable proceedings and equal protection under the
 Right to refuse to be bound by an unlawful, illegitimate or inequitable judgment, order,
warrant, directive and/or ruling of a de facto court;
 Right to use all necessary and reasonable measures to safeguard the security of oneself,
one’s kin and one’s interests, including the appointment and authorisation of defenders of
the peace in any community;
 Right of superior guardianship, from the date of conception, over one’s offspring;
 Right as a child to expect loving guardians;
 Right to educate one’s children in any way one deems to be beneficial for their physical,
intellectual, emotional and spiritual development, free from supervision, intervention or
 Right to refuse any bodily interference’s, restraints or impositions (medical or otherwise);
 Right to cultivate, harvest, store, trade, barter and/or use for one’s own purposes, any and
all organic substances which will grow or form naturally upon the Earth;
 Right of full freedom of movement to and from any place on the Earth, including but not
limited to the right to cross international borders, through port or otherwise, and to return
to the land of one’s physical birth without let, hindrance, molestation or charge;
 Right to practice and revitalize one’s cultural traditions and customs, and to maintain,
protect and develop the past, present and future manifestations of one’s cultures;
 Right to refuse to exercise any of these rights