Magna Carta 1215 Article 61 & Practicing Lawful Dissent
The Lawful & Peaceful Way for Sovereigns to Win
King John born 1167 reigned from 1199–1216 was the youngest son of King Henry II 1157 -1189. John succeeded his famous brother, King Richard The Lion heart born 1157 reigned from 1189–1199 , as King of England until his death in 1199.
John exploited his feudal rights to extort money from the people he set taxes at very high levels, he enforced arbitrary fines and he seized the barons’ estates. John used this income to fund his expensive wars, keeping his more popular brother at bay, but still he failed to hold together the empire created by his father, because he was unpredictable and aggressive. He disregarded justice when dealing with opponents, regularly taking hostages and imposing ruthless and cruel punishments.
He was in conflict with his brother King Richard (along with the infamous Robin Hood) the Barons and the Knights of the Kingdom formulated a forever binding Constitution to ensure the people would always be free. This led to Johns excommunication by the Pope and his death in 1216. He was succeeded by his 9 year old son Henry III born 1207 – 1272. Pope Innocent III ordered the unlawful annulment of Magna Carta in 1215 invoking article 61 and its remedy and a further revolt in 1216 when he unlawfully deleted many of the clauses that ensured the freedom of the people.